Libyan Journal of Dentistry <p>The Libyan Journal of Dentistry (LJD) is an open-access and peer-reviewed journal that supports publications in all scientific branches relevant to dentistry and to the oral cavity including basic medical sciences related to dental profession. LJD is the official online journal of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Benghazi. The journal publishes biannually, the first issue in March and the second in September. LJD receives and publishes original articles, review articles and case reports. Manuscripts submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis and not under consideration for publication elsewhere.</p> University of Benghazi en-US Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2663-9661 Oral health Promotion: Are we doing it right? <p>Editorial</p> Arheiam Arheiam Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 1 2 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5872 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude Towards Oral Health and Periodontal Disease in Diabetic Patients among Libyan Physicians <p><strong>Background</strong>: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Emerging research suggests a bidirectional link between diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal disease (PD). This indicates that DM elevates the risk of developing PD, while periodontal inflammation may contribute to increased blood sugar levels and worsen glycemic control.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To determine the knowledge and attitude of internal medicine physicians towards oral health and periodontal disease in public and private diabetic clinics within the city of Benghazi, Libya.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study among practicing physicians who treat diabetic patients in various clinics within the city limits of Benghazi, Libya. A structured questionnaire consisting of 30 questions was utilized to assess the physicians’ demographics, their understanding of periodontal disease, and their attitudes towards the oral health of diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study findings indicated that a positive attitude was more prevalent among female physicians (75%) than their male counterparts (25%). Conversely, a negative attitude was predominantly observed in senior house officers (93.8%), whereas consultants and physicians with over 10 years of experience demonstrated a positive attitude, accounting for 22.4% and 55.3% respectively. The data also revealed a statistically significant association between the attitude and knowledge level and the basic demographic characteristics of the participants, with a <em>p</em>-value &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although most physicians are aware of the impact that PD and DM have on overall patient health, a knowledge deficiency is evident among senior house officers. In contrast, consultants possess the most comprehensive knowledge. The physicians also expressed a willingness to enhance their understanding of PD to improve health outcomes for their diabetic patients.</p> Amelsaad Elbarasi Salma Mahfoud Nazeha Elzaidy Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 3 10 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5874 Perception of Tooth Carving Sessions among Undergraduate Dental Students within the Faculty of Dentistry/University of Benghazi <p><strong>Background: </strong>In most dental schools, dental anatomy is taught in both theoretical and practical sessions during the first years of the Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS). This comprehensive course equips students with essential knowledge about dental morphology and occlusion. Furthermore, it serves as the fundamental basis for various clinical disciplines within dentistry, particularly those related to tooth restoration.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study aimed to evaluate dental students’ response to tooth carving sessions using wax blocks within the BDS curriculum at the Faculty of Dentistry in Benghazi and to assess the benefit of these sessions in improving their knowledge, and understanding of tooth morphology.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A three-month cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2022 among 474 undergraduate dental students at the Faculty of Dentistry in Benghazi. We employed a convenience sampling approach to collect the data. The questionnaire was prepared using a semi-structured proforma, which included questions about participants’ perceptions of tooth carving. Participants received a Google Form link through the telegram channel of the students. Descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, percentage, and frequency were calculated using the SPSS 21.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 474 dental students participated in this study. Among them 94% practiced tooth carving using wax blocks during their practical sessions of dental anatomy. More than 70% of participants agreed that tooth carving enhanced their understanding of precise tooth morphology, dental anatomy, and proper occlusion relationships. Interestingly, 63% of the participants believed that live demonstration assisted with step-by-step video tutorials would be more effective in practicing tooth carving.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results, it is evident that most students at the Dental Faculty of Benghazi recognize the significant importance of tooth carving in their educational journey as future dental practitioners. This valuable data can inform the development of dental education programs, ensuring continued emphasis on teaching tooth carving during the undergraduate stage. However, as we move forward, exploring innovative approaches becomes essential. Incorporating newer techniques such as computer-aided platforms and video tutorials could enhance student engagement and provide a deeper understanding of tooth morphology and anatomy.</p> Aziza E. S. Eltira Khadeejah Buzaribah Aisha Areibi Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 11 15 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5875 Periodontal Health Knowledge Levels among Libyan Adult Patients Attending Public and Private Dental Clinics: A Comparative Study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Periodontal diseases can result in premature tooth loss; However, early detection, adherence to oral hygiene practices, and regular prophylaxis can help prevent or minimize the severity of periodontal diseases. Additionally, increased awareness and knowledge about periodontal health can positively influence behaviors related to oral health.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study aimed to assess and compare the level of knowledge about periodontal oral health among patients attending public and private dental clinics and to investigate the relationship of their knowledge with Socio-demographic factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess periodontal health knowledge among Libyan adults. Researchers interviewed 180 adults aged 18 years and older face-to-face. The study focused on demographic factors such as age, gender, education level, occupation, and clinic type. Additionally, a chi-square test was used to explore differences in periodontal health knowledge between patients attending public and private dental clinics, considering age, gender, education, and occupation</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Socioeconomic status correlates with knowledge about periodontal signs, symptoms, etiology, and prevention. Females, those with higher education, and better economic status had significantly higher periodontal health knowledge. Knowledge increased with occupation level. The 41-60 age group and university-educated individuals demonstrated higher periodontal health knowledge. Females in public clinics were more aware of etiology than males. In private clinics, both genders showed an inverse association regarding the same question, with higher periodontal knowledge found among males.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>&nbsp;The study showed differences in periodontal knowledge among patients attending different types of dental clinics, with variations based on age, gender, education, and occupation. Better socio-economic status is associated with better knowledge.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Osama Ahmadi Aya BenAmer Mabroka Eisawy Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 16 23 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5876 Age Estimation in Libyan Children Based on Dental Panoramic Radiography <p><strong>Background:</strong> Age estimation plays a key role in the human identification process, and in guiding police investigations. Tooth development is widely used in determining age and state of maturity. Dental age (DA) is of high importance in forensic and pediatric dentistry and also orthodontic treatment planning.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the Cameriere method in estimating chronological age (CA) of a Libyan sample of 6-year-old up to 13-year-old children through analysis of panoramic radiographs on teeth, considering the relationship between age and measurements of open apices teeth.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Orthopantomographic images of 156 radiographs were selected for the study of which 76 belonged to boys and 80 girls children. The dental age of the subjects was determined through the Cameriere method. Differences and correlations between chronological and dental ages were assessed by paired t-tests and Pearson’s correlation analysis, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict chronologic age in Libyan from 6-13 years children population.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A high positive correlation was found between chronologic age and dental age (as assessed by Cameriere's formula) with r values 0.882, 0.975, and 0.758 for the total, girls and boys study population, respectively. The mean dental age assessed by Cameriere's method was significantly lower than the chronologic age in the Libyan population with boys and the total study population (p &lt; 0.05). Six out of nine parameters were significantly associated with chronologic age (R2=0.996, F (6,155)= 2792.023, p&lt;0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our findings demonstrate that Cameriere’s method is a robust tool for age estimation. These results underscore the high accuracy and importance of assessing dental development for precise age estimation. Based on this research, we can conclude that Cameriere’s method is suitable for dental age estimation in Libyan children.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ayman Najem Fowziya M Ali Osama Ahmadi Farag Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 24 32 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5877 A Questionnaire-based Study on Impression Materials and Techniques for Complete Denture Construction among Dentists Practicing in Central/Western Regions of Libya <p><strong>Background: </strong>The success of complete dentures mainly depends on impression-making accuracy; thus, dentists need to select the proper impression materials and techniques to achieve optimal outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the favoured impression materials and techniques used for complete denture construction among dentists practicing in the Central/Western regions of Libya.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted between July 2023 and September 2023. The questionnaire was comprised of 30 questions, which were divided into two parts including; 11 questions for demographic and professional attitude and 19 questions focused on professional steps of complete denture fabrication for edentulous patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The response rate for this questionnaire was (66%). It was revealed that (96.1%) of respondents used only irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) as an ideal option for primary impressions. In response to the same question for final impressions, (45.8%) of participants exhibited that polyvinylsiloxane was the favourite choice. Regarding custom trays, (41.7%) of practitioners preferred using light-cured acrylic resin as a custom tray to take definitive impressions. (87.4%) of prosthodontists border molded the custom tray in sections by (81.9%), using modelling plastic impression compound by (92.1%). The most used philosophy for final impression making was the mucostatic impression technique by (50.4%), while (37.0%) used selective pressure and (12.6%) selected muco-compressive. Implant-supported overdenture was discussed as an alternative treatment by (65.4%). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS 28.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study reflects a diversity of opinion among Libyan dentists during the construction of complete dentures. The most commonly used material for primary impression was irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) and for final impression was polyvinylsiloxane, which coincides with professional practices worldwide. Modelling plastic impression compound was the most preferred material for border molding. The mucostatic technique was the predominantly used impression philosophy for final impression making.</p> Rawan Albeshti Mofida Khmaj Abdulfatah Khmaj Aihab Albaden Hoda Almagtof Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 33 41 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5878 Causes and Patterns of Dental Extraction in Dental College of Sebha University <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study aimed to identify the primary cause of permanent teeth extraction among patients attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) department of dental college, Sebha University, and its correlation with age, gender, and tooth type.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>s: A cross-sectional study was conducted over ten months; and included 509 patients aged 16-90 years, who underwent tooth extraction. Variables studied were the patient's age, gender, tooth type, and extraction cause. SPSS was used for data analysis, and Chi-Square and ANOVA tests were used to evaluate variables associated with the cause of tooth loss. A <em>p-</em>value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Overall, 509 permanent teeth were extracted, males (62.1%) and females (37.9%). The primary reasons for tooth extraction were dental caries (76.62%), mobility (10.80%), prosthodontics (6.86%), orthodontics, and impaction (2.95%). The most common age group was 36-45 years (24.36%) and 26-35 years (23.38%). The highest percentage of tooth extraction was in the third and first molars (29.1% and 24.4%, respectively), and the lateral incisor (1.77%) was the lowest. There was an insignificant association between the cause of extraction and gender; a significant association between the cause of extraction and age <em>p</em>&lt;0.001; and a significant association between (gender and age) with tooth type <em>p</em>&lt; 0.001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: dental caries was the main reason for tooth extraction in OMFS department, dental college, Sabha University.</p> Milad Abdusalam A Milad Abdulsalam E.E. Ibrahim Ahmed Glewan Mohamed Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 42 48 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5879 Infection Control Attitude, Knowledge and Awareness Level Among Dental Students and Interns in the Removable Prosthodontic Department at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Benghazi, Libya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dental students have increased patient contact during their education and clinical practice, putting them, their patient population and Dental Health Care Workers (DHCW) at high risk of cross-infection. Awareness of infection control principles may help in preventing disease transmission; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of infection control knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental students and interns in a removable prosthodontic department at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Benghazi, Libya.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In May 2023, we distributed questionnaires containing 33 items to interns, 3rd-year, and 4th-year dental students at the faculty. The questions covered topics such as hepatitis B vaccination, use of personal protective barriers, knowledge of infection control protocols, and practice in the removable prosthodontic department of the faculty. Descriptive statistics were recorded using frequency and percentages. Differences in proportions were assessed using the Chi-square and Fisher exact test. All statistical analyses were performed at a <em>p</em>-value less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of four hundred and ten (410) participants responded to the questionnaire. Around 21.5% of the students had completed their hepatitis B vaccination, while 41.2% had never been vaccinated. Regarding the self-reported use of protective barriers, intern students showed a significantly higher score than did other study groups (P &lt;0.001). Moreover, the vast majority of 3<sup>rd</sup> year students reported never wearing eyewear, a face shield, or the head cap (73.2%), (81.1%), or (70.1%), respectively. About two-thirds of intern students (69.4%) showed positive attitudes toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed moderate compliance to infection control procedures among the participants, they have limited orientation and knowledge of the infection control guidelines and policies. Despite a positive attitude toward infection control measures, proper infection control practices were not consistently followed. Consequently, it is essential to take action to ensure that students understand the critical importance of practicing cross-infection control. Higher education institutions should implement effective solutions to address this issue.</p> Mohamed H E Elgtlawi Amel M Lefsaay Omar O Elaogali Fatma M Bushaala Mardia Hamad Copyright (c) 2024 Libyan Journal of Dentistry 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 8 1 49 58 10.37376/ljd.v8i1.5880